Hybrid cars research paper
- Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles for a Sustainable Future.
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Optimized IGBT technology for mild hybrid vehicles. A new IGBT Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor technology with a blocking voltage capability of V was developed in order to further increase the improvements of hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel efficiency. A complete inverter The recent advances in processing speed and power, the invention of graphical software environments, and real-time operating systems, have contributed towards the development of these complex hybrid vehicles.
The use of a high-speed 'communication bus' on the vehicle, known as CAN controller area network , play an important role. These communication buses allow the embedded controller to communicate with each another. Second-by-second gaseous emissions and total particle number emissions from the hybrid vehicles show patterns that are in some ways similar to conventional multiport fuel injected gasoline vehicles, with large increases in concentration on accelerations. Under driving conditions where the engine may be turned off and on, or under conditions where the electric drive assists in accelerations, different patterns are observed.
These patterns can also differ from one repeat of a driving cycle to another, depending on the state of charge of the battery. Cold temperature operation is very demanding on the electric system of the hybrids. The batteries are challenged not only in starting the vehicle but in retaining charge during operation. These conditions result in much higher fuel consumption and mass emission rates of pollutants and greenhouse gases as compared to standard temperature operation and also greatly influence the transient nature of emissions from these vehicles.
Some simulation results are compared and discussed: the optimized FLC exhibits better performance in terms of fuel consumption and pollutants emission. A complete inverter prototype was designed and used to compare the performance of state of the art V IGBTs and the new V technology.
An empirical study on the behavior of hybrid-electric vehicle purchasers
Due to its reduced blocking voltage, this new IGBT is mostly suitable for mild hybrid vehicles with working voltages up to approximately V. Interchangeable energy sources for hybrid vehicles. The SASC is an event which occurs every two years, and showcases novel alternative energy technologies. A methodology is presented which was used in the construction of two prototype alternative energy vehicles that allows various interchangeable energy sources to be used for sustained driving.
In order to demonstrate this concept, four different energy sources are presented in this paper and sample results are presented.
The energy sources are as follows: a hydrogen fuel cell, a microturbine generator, a liquid petroleum gas generator, and a standard petroleum generator. The two hybrid vehicles developed by the UJ came first and second in the Greenfleet Technology class, and one of the vehicles placed fourth overall with respect to distance travelled. Optimized fuzzy logic control strategy of hybrid vehicles under different driving cycle. This paper focuses on the control strategy of Hybrid Vehicles under different driving cycle. FLC is mainly based on the process knowledge and intuition.
And we choose two different driving cycles for comparison to improve the effectiveness of the method. This paper presents a driving intention intelligent identification method for hybrid vehicles based on fuzzy inference. In this paper, a fuzzy logic inference system is developed to identify driving intention.
The membership functions and rules of fuzzy logic inference system are built for intention identification and the simulation is done in different driving conditions. The simulation results show that the fuzzy logic inference system can identify driving intention accurately. Research on control method of induction motor for fuel cell hybrid vehicles. A test and research platform of fuel cell hybrid system for electric vehicles is independently researched and developed.
And then, an integrated designed project of power distribution unit for fuel cell hybrid vehicle is preliminarily analyzed. On that basis, a high efficiency, high performance and wide speed adjustable range control strategy of induction motor for fuel cell hybrid vehicle is proposed based on theoretical analysis and simulation. Brushless motors for electric and hybrid vehicles. Possible electric and hybrid electric vehicle brushless motor drive concepts are compared concerning power to weight ratio, efficiency and manufacturing costs.
The design and development of prototype permanent magnet synchronous and asynchronous motors as well as new developments are shown. FEM analysis and thermal calculations are used. Special control strategies are applied to obtain a wide speed range. Theoretical investigations are confirmed by measurements.
An empirical study on the behavior of hybrid-electric vehicle purchasers
Simulations of special conditions, like short circuit and load dump, show the dynamic behaviour of the drive. The optimisation of a complete drive system from mains to wheels shows an essential potential for energy savings which may extend the driving range. Parallel hybrids use both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor to drive the wheels top. The motor serves double duty, also acting as a generator to charge the batteries during braking or when the pack is depleted beyond a predetermined amount.
A prime example of such a parallel hybrid is the Honda Insight bottom , the first mass-produced hybrid sold in the United States. Photograph courtesy of Honda. Although engineers have been doing research on continuously variable transmissions since the advent of the automobile, the first truly practical and simple design emerged only in the s with work done in the Netherlands by Van Doorne's Transmissie which is now owned by Bosch. An alternative design, which came from work done at another Dutch firm, Gear Chain Industries, in collaboration with two other companies, DAF and Volvo, soon showed improvements over the Bosch unit.
Since that time, further efforts have yielded continuously variable transmissions that can now boast overall efficiencies above 95 percent and that are every bit as durable as gears while producing much less noise. What is more, because these transmissions require only about 25 parts rather than the several hundred to more than 1, pieces found in conventional transmissions , their cost should be considerably lower once manufacturers begin producing them in large numbers.
I should note that the Prius transmission is also continuously variable, but the means used to attain this feature require two motor-generators, making the system more expensive than it needs to be. In addition to appropriate transmissions, plug-in hybrids also need high-power electric motors and controllers.
Advances in the fabrication of the permanent magnets used in motors has allowed them to shrink considerably over the past three decades. These motors can be used with today's microcomputer controllers and with special semiconductor switches that are capable of handling many amps of current at high voltage levels, both to transfer power to the wheels and to recapture it when the car slows.
The total package—including a down-sized internal combustion engine, a continuously variable transmission, modern batteries, an electric motor and control electronics—need weigh no more than a conventional engine and transmission yet can provide up to 60 miles of all-electric range while driving at up to 60 miles per hour using the electric motor alone and much faster in hybrid mode with the engine running too.
Figure 7. Plug-in hybrids built by the author and his students all employ continuously variable transmissions. Though unconventional, this equipment is well known to the automobile industry.
Learn more about hybrid electric vehicle
Audi, for example, has used it on some of its vehicles, as depicted above. These transmissions use a metal belt yellow to connect two adjustable pulleys red. At one extreme, they are arranged so that the belt rides close to the input shaft and far from the output shaft top. The engine thus turns a large number of times for each rotation of the wheels, which is equivalent to the low gear on a conventional transmission. At the other extreme, the pulleys are shifted so that the belt rides far from the input shaft and close to the output shaft bottom. This configuration makes for fewer revolutions of the engine for each turn for of the wheels, equivalent to high gear.
But unlike a typical manual or automatic transmission, a continuously variable transmission is not limited to fixed gear ratios as it moves between these operating points. The technology for plug-in hybrids is now advanced enough to allow all classes of vehicles to be manufactured, from the smallest to the largest. In an effort to help demonstrate that fact, my students and I have put together nine plug-in hybrids in the past 15 years, everything from two-seat sports cars to full-size sport-utility vehicles—all of which have 60 miles of all-electric range using ordinary metal-hydride batteries.
The hybrids we have fabricated weigh roughly the same as standard vehicles because the internal combustion engines employed are less than one-third the size of those found in typical cars and because their continuously variable transmissionsaremuch lighter and simpler than conventional multi-speed geared transmissions. The pounds we were able to save in this way could then be put into good-sized electric motors and batteries.
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Figure 8. Unlike the hybrids one sees on the road today, plug-in hybrids use relatively small internal combustion engines and relatively large electric motors and battery packs diagram. As a result, they can have impressive all-electric ranges. Photograph courtesy of the author.
Diagram by Barbara Aulicino. For example, a hybrid car we constructed in named "Coulomb" a converted Mercury Sable sedan has an engine with a displacement of only cubic centimeters, something one finds more typically powering a modest-size motorcycle. Yet that diminutive engine can produce 36 kilowatts, which is more than sufficient for sustained hill climbing. Coulomb also contains an electric motor capable of putting out 75 kilowatts peak power, which allows the car to accelerate from a standstill to 60 miles per hour in only 9 seconds when used in conjunction with its gasoline engine.
With the car's kilowatt-hour pack of metal-hydride batteries, the motor can carry the car for 60 miles in all-electric mode.