Essays on research methodology
He received his doctorate in Educational Psychology from the University of Wisconsin in , specializing in statistics and research methods. McLean joined the OISE faculty in , teaching courses in measurement, statistics, quantitative and qualitative research methods and program evaluation. He continues to teach on a contract basis, year-to-year.
Bateson, Ed. Stake, Ed. Trained as Registered Nurse at St. Speciality area is Program Developement and Implementation.
Am currently writing a textbook on diabetes education for health care professionals. Married and living in London Ont. Dale's main interest is in using research to enhance online teaching and learning experiences, especially for women entrepreneurs.
The data collection plan developed should answer the following question: 1. Why do we want the data? What will we do with the data after we have collected them? You must decide on a purpose for collecting the data 2. Where will we collect data? The location where data are collected must be identified clearly. What type of data will we collect?
Essay on Research Methodology
In general, data can be classified into two major types: attribute data and variables data 4. Who will collect the data? Those closest to the data, the process workers, should collect the data 5. How do we collect the right data? Collect data that best describe the situation at hand. Data analysis Eisenhardt, explains that analysis is an interactive process started with the development and presentation of an initial set of theoretical propositions based on evidence from the first phase of data collection, during field work and the theoretical assumptions associated with the theoretical framework.
According to Kothari, the term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationships that exist among data-groups. The process operations in data analysis are: a. Editing: it is a process of examining the collected raw data to detect errors and ommsisions and to correct these where possible. Coding: it refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses cab be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Classification: it is the process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics.
Tabulation: it is to arrange data in some kind of concise and logical order. Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis testing refers to the formal procedures used by statisticians to accept or reject statistical hypotheses What is Hypothesis Testing, Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis, based on sample data Statistics and Probability Dictionary, This process is called hypothesis testing.
An hypothesis test consists of four steps. This involves stating the null and alternative hypotheses. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive.
That is, if one is true, the other must be false; and vice versa. This involves specifying the statistics e. A decision rule is a procedure that the researcher uses to decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Use the decision rule to evaluate the test statistic. If the statistic is consistent with the null hypothesis, you cannot reject the null hypothesis; otherwise, reject the null hypothesis. The task of interpretation has two major aspects viz. Interpretation is considered a basic component of research process because of the following: a It is through interpretation that the researcher can well understand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings.
Through this he can link up his findings with those of other studies, having the same abstract principle, and thereby can predict about the concrete world of events. Fresh enquiries can test these predictions later on.
Add your research methodology in a dissertation with a proper format
This way the continuity in research can be maintained. Report Writing. Features of Good report, defines a report as a piece of informative writing that describes a set of actions and analyses any results in response to a specific brief. Logical analysis of the subject matter: thre are two ways in which to develop a subject i logically and ii chronologically. The logical development is made on the basis of mental connections and associations between the one thing and another by means of analysis.
It contains materials from the simple possible to the most complex structures. Chronological development is based on a connection or sequence in time or occurrence, the directions for doing or making follow the chronological order. Preparation of the final outcome: outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed.
They are and aid to the logical organisation of the material and a reminder of the points to be stressed in the report c. Preparation of the rough draft: the researcher writes down what he has done in the context of his study. He will write down the procedure adopted by him in collecting the material for his study along with limitations faced, the technique of analysis adopted, the broad findings and generalizations and the various suggestions he wants to offer regarding the problem concerned. Rewriting and polishing the rough draft: while rewriting and polishing, one should check the report for weaknesses in logical development or presentation.
He should also see whether the material presented as it is presented , has unity and cohesion. In addition the researcher should give due attention to the fact that in his rough draft if he has been consistent or not. He should check the mechanics of writing-grammar, spelling and usage. Preparation of the final bibliography: the bibliography , should contain all the works which the researcher has consulted.
Writing the final draft: while writing the final draft, the researcher must avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon. Illiustrations and examples based on common experiences must be incorporated in the final draft as they happen to be most in communicating the research findings to others.
Research Methods Essay
The format suggested below is the same as that used in most published papers as laid down in Guide to Writing Research Reports, In many cases, the title will mention the independent and dependent variables. Your title should be a brief, but accurate reflection of the content of the report 2 Abstract: The abstract is a short summary of the report. It should contain a brief description of the rationale and of the method, results and discussion sections.
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It should be a comprehensive but concise summary of the whole report which will enable readers to decide if they wish to read any further. A useful rule of thumb is to try to write four concise sentences describing: 1 Why you did it, 2 What you did, 3 What results you found and 4 What you concluded.
Write the abstract after you have written the rest of the report. This means that the reader, having read the introduction, should feel able to anticipate what your study will involve and should allow someone who is not an expert to understand why you did this study. For this reason the introduction will begin at a general background level and progress through to the specific reasons for and aims of the study. This will normally include a review of past work in the area and an explanation of the theoretical or practical reasons for doing the study.
This section must contain enough information for the reader to be able to repeat the study, but should exclude any irrelevant details. It explains about the i research participants, ii apparatus used, iii materials used, iv design and v procedure. This means that you should describe what you got from all of the responses that were made by each participant to the scores that were analyzed.
Follow the description of the treatment of the data with a clear, concise summary of the data using descriptive statistics.